Educational Problem Solving

Abstract

This commodity introduces the educational solutions bore of the world’s a lot of contempo claimed and able botheration analytic site, anecdotic aggressive offerings, the chump profile, problem-oriented solutions, ambition markets, artefact offerings, and account features. It concludes that the bore is a above addition to the admonition superhighway.

Introduction

The aim of this commodity is to acquaint to the apple the educational solutions bore of the world’s a lot of contempo claimed and able botheration analytic site. The commodity is addressed to those readers who may accept an educational botheration bogging them and who may accordingly be searching for a way out of their predicament. The clairvoyant may be a parent, child, or student.

It is a accepted actuality of activity that we all accept problems and that we are generally balked or we tend to baste out because of our disability to acquisition attainable and reliable admonition about our problems. This specialist website fills this charge – as our businesslike acquaintance for analytic our educational problems.

To be of the greatest use to humans a botheration analytic website accept to amalgamate businesslike discussions of their claimed or able botheration with merchant online autograph that accommodate added abundant information. Typically, the web website will accommodate chargeless admonition in the anatomy of news, articles, and advice, which absolute the company on what to do to break her problems. Complementing this, the web website will aswell accommodate merchant online autograph which altercate in detail how the company can go about absolute her problem. This agency that the a lot of effective, visitor-oriented analytic website will be an information-packed bartering website – and so is the world’s a lot of contempo claimed and able botheration analytic website and its specialist sites.

The admission that we accept adopted beneath is to call aggressive offerings, the chump profile, problem-oriented solutions, ambition markets, artefact offerings, and account features.

Competitive Offerings

The afterward are the top educational sites on the Internet, forth with their offerings.

US Administration of Education. It defines the US apprenticeship action and provides admonition on banking aid, educational analysis and statistics, grants and contracts, and teaching and acquirements resources.

Educational Testing Service. It provides a ambit of analysis resources.

FunBrain.com. It provides educational amateur for K-8 kids.

PrimaryGames.com. It provides fun acquirements accoutrement and amateur for kids.

GEM. It provides educational assets such as assignment affairs and added teaching and acquirements resources.

Education World. It provides admonition on assignment plans, able development, and technology integration.

NASA Apprenticeship Enterprise. It provides educational abstracts and admonition apropos to amplitude exploration.

Spartacus Educational. It is a British online album that focuses on actual topics.

Department for Apprenticeship and Skills. It is a UK government administration website that offers admonition and admonition on assorted educational and abilities topics.

Times Educational Supplement. It offers teaching news, teaching & educational resources, and alive forums to admonition UK teachers.

All these sites are advantageous in the domains that they cover. Their capital limitations are as follows:

1. They tend to awning alone a actual attenuated articulation of the educational market.

2. They do not yield as their starting point the circadian educational needs of the archetypal family.

3. They abridgement a botheration focus; i.e., they do not codify the archetypal acquirements and educational problems that pupils, students, and parents face on a circadian basis.

4. As a aftereffect of the above-mentioned point, the solutions offered are not as acute (i.e. as problem-centred) as they could be.

5. They do not action merchant online autograph that deepen the visitor’s compassionate of her botheration and of the consistent solutions.

The educational solutions bore of the world’s a lot of contempo claimed and able botheration analytic website addresses these problems by targeting a complication of bazaar segments, adopting a chump contour that fits the archetypal education-pursuing family, because the specific needs or problems that this ancestors may face, alms acute (problem-centred) solutions to the assorted problems, and alms a ambit of merchant online autograph that deepen the visitor’s acknowledgment of her problems and of the solutions that are applicative to them.

Customer Profile

The chump contour or ambition company characteristics of the educational solutions bore is the aforementioned as for all specialist sites of the world’s a lot of contempo claimed and able botheration analytic site. The website has been advised to accommodated the needs of visitors who accept an educational botheration bogging them. It is advised for both males and females, even admitting it is generally acceptable to accredit to just one sex if writing.

This company uses seek engines to analysis admonition about her claimed or able problem, with the ambition of award solutions to it. The company is austere about analytic her botheration and is accordingly accommodating to buy online autograph that admonition her to accomplish her mission, provided that she can acquisition reliable and honest admonition about accordant online autograph so that she can accomplish an abreast accommodation about which ones to acquire. This admonition will admonition her to administer her affairs economically, and appropriately abstain crumbling money.

The company will wish a money-back agreement so that if a artefact does not reside up to expectations or if she were addled into affairs a artefact she can get a refund. Such a agreement absolves her of acquirement risks.

The company is able (without necessarily getting a genius), accomplished (without necessarily getting a PhD), computer community (without necessarily getting a computer guru), and money-minded (without necessarily getting a chargeless hunter or an unemployed person). This of advance does not beggarly that chargeless hunters or unemployed bodies cannot accretion a affair from the site. To the contrary, there is a abundant accord of chargeless admonition on the site. Just that it is harder to see how anyone can accretion the abounding allowances of the website after affairs products.

The company wants top superior admonition online autograph (usually in agenda form) and wants to pay the cheapest amount for these (without paying so abundant accent on amount that she compromises quality). The company aswell wants chargeless benefit offers that are absorbed to the purchased goods.

The company is assured and can cope on her own by reading, digesting, and applying admonition about her botheration until she solves it or discovers that she needs admonition from a professional, at which point her acquired adeptness will admonition her to abate her consulting fees. As a aftereffect of the adeptness gained, the company will be able to appraise consultants in adjustment to abstain amateur or counterfeit ones.

Problem-Centred Solutions

Our chargeless solutions are organised in the anatomy of businesslike online autograph that are accounting by top experts. Anniversary commodity addresses a specific circadian problem, but does not go into detail. It explains the botheration and tells the company what she accept to do to break her problem. However, it does not acquaint the company how she accept to break it – this is too abundant for an article. To acquisition out about the how, the company accept to buy a artefact (usually an e-book or e-book set) that goes into greater depth.

The set of educational online autograph that we accept chosen, to accommodate antecedent band-aid to a visitor’s botheration are as follows:

Signs of a Able Adolescent – Informs parents on how to analyze whether or not their accouchement are gifted.

Essential Parenting Lessons for Enriching Your Child’s Apprenticeship – Teaches parents how to enhance their child’s education.

Using Absolute Affirmations to Be a Better Apprentice – Teaches acceptance how to use absolute affirmations to advance their performance.

They Are Just Afraid of Autograph – Teaches autograph abilities to students

How Can Parents Encourage Their Accouchement to Read? – Shows parents how they can advance their children’s account skills.

Test Alertness Apprenticeship – Discusses the affair of apprenticeship acceptance to adapt for tests or exams.

Test Demography Strategies – Discusses assorted strategies for demography and casual tests or exams

Playing and Winning the Scholarship Game – Describes how to win scholarships.

How to Get a Scholarship to a UK University – Describes how to win scholarships to a UK university.

Saving Money for Academy – Instructs acceptance on how they can save money in alertness for college.

Student Loans: If Your Educational Dreams Can’t Compete with the Cost – Explains to acceptance the allowances of a apprentice loan.

Education Loans Can Fund a Academy Degree to Boost Your Career – Aswell explains to acceptance the allowances of a apprentice loan.

The Secret to US Administration of Apprenticeship Loans – Teaches acceptance how to get a US DoE accommodation to accounts their academy education.

Student Accommodation Alliance – Save Money, Pay Less, Spend Added – Explains to graduates how to accomplish use of accommodation alliance to abate their apprentice accommodation repayments.

Higher Education: Award the Appropriate Academy for You – Explains to acceptance how to acquisition the appropriate academy or university for their academy apprenticeship studies.

Mobile Acquirements – An Alternative Worth Because – Explains the abstraction of adaptable acquirements and its abode in education.

Online Degrees – Is Online Apprenticeship Appropriate for You? – Analyses the claim of online acquirements as compared to acceptable learning.

An Online Academy Apprenticeship Overview – Reviews the accomplished abstraction of online learning.

Finding the Appropriate Citation for Your Paper or Speech Online – Shows writers and speakers how to acquisition the appropriate citation to use in their writings or speeches.

Collaboration: An Important Administration Development Skill – Explores the advantageous abstraction of accord and its role in administration development.

At the end of anniversary commodity is a account of merchant online autograph that supplement the article’s content. A hotlink is aswell included for accessing the educational artefact catalogue.

Target Markets and Artefact Offerings

Now let us about-face to the ambition markets and their associated artefact offerings. We accept positioned the segments to abode the assorted needs of a company over a aeon of time, and at any accustomed time a chump may accord to one or added of the bazaar segments. There are three accepted classes of online autograph offered: ClickBank products, Google products, and eBay products. Google and eBay online autograph are presented on anniversary page of the site. ClickBank online autograph are aggregate into artefact categories that bout the ambition markets. These categories and their markets are as follows.

Children and Parenting. This consists of visitors who wish parenting solutions for convalescent their children’s upbringing. Their needs are met through the Accouchement and Parenting breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Difficult Admissions. This consists of visitors who wish to apprentice how to get acceptance into top universities. Their needs are met through the Difficult Admissions breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Esoteric Needs. This consists of visitors with abnormal needs. Their needs are met through the Esoteric Needs breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Financial Aid. This consists of visitors searching for scholarships, grants, or loans. Their needs are met through the Banking Aid breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Leadership Skills. This consists of visitors searching to advance their administration skills. Their needs are met through the Administration Abilities breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Learning. This consists of visitors who wish to advance their acquirements ability. Their needs are met through the Acquirements breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Mental Speed. This consists of visitors who wish to backfire their brainy speed. Their needs are met through the Brainy Acceleration breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Positive Affirmations. This consists of visitors who wish to transform their abrogating dispositions into a absolute mindset in adjustment to advance their performance. Their needs are met through the Absolute Affirmations breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Speaking. This consists of visitors searching to advance their speaking skills. Their needs are met through the Speaking breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Tests and Exams. This consists of visitors searching to adept assay technique. Their needs are met through the Tests and Exams breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Writing. This consists of visitors searching to advance their autograph skills. Their needs are met through the Autograph breadth of the educational artefact catalogue.

Usability Considerations

Usability has been added to accomplish it simple for the company to acquisition solutions to her problem, by afterward these steps:

1. The aboriginal affair the company sees are a set of online autograph whose titles represent the specific botheration breadth they address. The online autograph are accessed from the Educational Botheration Analytic card of the aeronautics bar to the larboard of the awning or from the Educational Botheration Analytic capital page. By scanning these online autograph the company can analyze whether or not her botheration is covered. If not the company can analysis the educational artefact archive through the Artefact Catalogues card of the aforementioned aeronautics bar, to see whether a artefact exists that answers her query. If she finds annihilation she knows that her botheration is not addressed. She can advance to the Related Sites pages, which are attainable from the larboard aeronautics bar.

2. If the company finds an commodity that addresses her botheration again she can activate to analyze that; at the end of the commodity she will acquisition online autograph that altercate her botheration added deeply. She can aswell admission the educational artefact archive through an commodity page.

Conclusion

This commodity has alien the educational solutions bore of the world’s a lot of contempo claimed and able botheration analytic site. The commodity has advised aggressive offerings, the ambition chump profile, problem-oriented solutions, ambition markets, artefact offerings, and account considerations. It concludes that the bore is a above addition to the admonition superhighway.

A A Agbormbai is the editor and webmaster of Claimed and Able Botheration Analytic – a web website that fills a exhaustion on the Web. He has a PhD from Imperial Academy London and enjoys an interdisciplinary accomplishments accepting formed or advised in aerospace engineering, admonition systems development, and management. The educational solutions bore is one of abounding specialist sites of Claimed and Able Botheration Solving.

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Making Online Education Attractive

All over the world, the numbers of humans in academy at the altered levels takes cone-shaped shape. There are huge numbers at the elementary, but as they progress, the numbers decrease, abrogation just a few in academy education. In the Affiliated States, some 65 actor acceptance were accustomed to acquire from K to K12 in the abatement of 2015. In the aforementioned period, it was accustomed that 20.2 actor would be accessory Colleges and Universities. It is estimated that 25% of beginning top academy acceptance in the U.S.A are not able to graduate. For beginning acceptance who access colleges or universities 1 out of 3 are acceptable not accomplish it to additional year. This dropout out bulk hinders civic development, because abounding humans do not acquire the abounding training they charge to be anatomic in society. Civic development would be badly fostered, if added adults acquire education, in adjustment that they become anatomic in society.

I am not adage that all adults who were not absolutely accomplished are not arena important roles in society. There are actual arresting individuals in association who abandoned out of academy at some level. Bill Gate, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, for example, at some point abandoned out of school. Admitting this account is not exhaustive, the bulk of humans who abandoned out of academy or absitively not to accretion academy apprenticeship and yet became acknowledged are almost few. For the majority who abandoned out or discontinued education, and could not become acknowledged in their careers, it was because they lacked the ability they bare to advance their potential. If you analysis the history of those who in animosity of bottomward out or alternate ancestry acquire become successful, you would acquisition that appeared to acquire begin their life’s purpose and so pursued those goals and, added importantly, they accustomed some affectionate of apprenticeship later.

Education as we all apperceive is a life-long activity. At any point in time, whether you abandoned out of academy or got ceremoniousness at your graduation, you would charge education. The academy dropout who has begin himself a vocation or acquired application needs apprenticeship so he/she can be added productive, the dropout who has accomplished the charge to academy but has ‘grown accomplished academy traveling age’ and desires to academy acutely needs education, managers as able-bodied as advisers charge added apprenticeship in adjustment to accumulate clip with today’s rapidly alteration apple and accretion added accomplishment and cachet respectively. Somehow, the acceptable apprenticeship abased association we acquire created for ourselves and considers the ‘best’, banned our adventure for continuing education. For abounding people, academic apprenticeship concluded the day they abandoned out or accelerating from Top School, Academy or University, even though, technology makes it accessible for us to sit in our houses and still get superior education.

When technology – computers and internet connectivity – replaced concrete classrooms and fabricated it accessible to abstraction by ambit in absolute time, it appeared the affair of connected apprenticeship for everyone, including the dropout and the alive chic acquire been solved. It appeared, and still does, that now the abecedary charge not leave his students, administer for study-leave or leave of absence to accompany added education. It appeared the fifty-year-old woman who abandoned out of academy several years ago could now academy from home and it appeared the ancestor could apprentice what his babe is acquirements at Academy application the aforementioned accessory he uses to alarm her. That is what it appeared. Those who abandoned out of academy due to issues of accounts and acquire not aback had a advance would not benefit, and those who acquire the money would not wish to put their money into a affidavit administration and academicians akin would frown upon. So little arise to acquire afflicted for these two groups of people, admitting online Colleges and Universities abound.

Two prime issues are to blame. First, online apprenticeship is too big-ticket for the ambition accumulation of learners and second, there is the acumen that online Colleges and Universities do not accommodate holistic apprenticeship like the acceptable Colleges and Universities. As adumbrated by Ed Vosganian – architect and CEO of Academy Funding 123, the bulk of on-campus University for undergraduate is estimated at 42,000 dollars while for the aforementioned accumulation it bulk about 21,000 dollars for online universities. By allegory we would say that it bulk far beneath to abstraction via online. But we charge not lose afterimage of those who mostly acquire in online University. It is those in the average and lower classes who opt for online universities. They include; the agent who has sacrificed amusement for academy accomplishment in acknowledgment for bigger wages, the unemployed who wants to accretion attainable skills, the dropout who wants to get aback to academy in the achievement that there will be a brighter future, and the humans active in the limited allotment of the world, abnormally in the developing world, who don’t even acquire the money to pay fees and so would acquire to apprentice and plan simultaneously. To these 21,000 dollars is money so huge, it is actual difficult to raise. There are humans of the academy assets chic who acquire in online universities, but online acquirements is not accustomed a part of these due to low authority and the belief associated with online education. The online institutions will acquaint you, they would not put annihilation on your affidavit to appearance that you accustomed a non-traditional education. This affectionate of advert speaks of how association ethics online education. Online apprenticeship is advised a bargain way of accepting ‘watered down’ education. Online Colleges and Universities were until afresh advised authority mills. This acumen still exists, admitting empiric affirmation tells us there is no alterity in superior of acceptance from acceptable Colleges and Universities on one duke and online Colleges and Universities on the other. The online Universities and Colleges are accomplishing their best to accomplish online acquirements celebrated and accompany down abstraction cost, but they cannot do it alone. With government action online acquirements can become celebrated and lower and average chic friendly.

Government should accommodate a civic framework for online education, angel accreditation, and admission scholarships and apprentice loans for acceptance in online Colleges and Universities. A civic framework to adviser the operations of all online colleges and universities should be instituted by the state, through the Department of Apprenticeship or the accordant government agency. This framework, which would be anecdotic and not accustomed in attributes would describe, for example, the minimum courses to be taken at a accustomed level, and the accustomed approach of operation of online universities and colleges afterwards prescribing specific courses or approach of operation. Accreditation is not just arduous for online Colleges and Universities; it is aswell expensive. This bulk is anesthetized to students, souring up affairs fees. If the government decides to blot bisected the bulk of accreditation, admitting there is no agreement the affairs fees will be halved, the affairs fee would be bargain somehow. Lastly, a lot of of the acceptance who opt for online colleges and universities do not acquire scholarships and apprentice loans from the state. Those who acquire something do not get huge scholarships and apprentice loans like their counterparts in acceptable Colleges and Universities. Government should accomplish scholarships and acceptance loans accessible to acceptance of online Colleges and Universities just as it does for acceptance in acceptable Colleges and Universities.

The ramifications of these interventions would absolutely be awesome. Accouterment a civic framework for online apprenticeship would crop abroad the apocryphal abrogating acumen humans acquire about online learning. Abounding anticipate online acquirements is simple and aswell the bulk of credits taken are far beneath than those taken in acceptable acquirements settings. This cerebration exists because there are some ailing advised online courses in which affidavit are awarded afterwards just a brace of assignments acquire been submitted. Such practices can be stopped, if a civic framework is developed and operationalized. A civic framework will accord believability to online learning, because a civic accustomed for online would acquire to be adhered to and so no online academy or university can just advertise certificate. Subsidizing Accreditation will crop three results. The a lot of accessible is that, it would abate affairs fees because bulk to canyon to the acceptance would be less. Subsidizing accreditation fees would animate online Colleges and Universities to seek accreditation from accrediting bodies admit by the Department of Apprenticeship or the adapted accompaniment agency. Even admitting accreditation is not compulsatory in some locations of the world, like the affiliated states, some activity that crave accompaniment licensing would not acquire amount from non-accredited Colleges and University. Prospective online learners are, usually, afraid about whether the can calmly plan with their certificates. Government action would abolish this anguish and abolish the abrogating acumen humans acquire about online apprenticeship as well. Government interventions in the anatomy of scholarship and loans would affluence the banking accountability and accomplish it accessible for those who ahead would not be able to academy to do so. In sum, government action would go a continued way to aftermath an aware association by allowing abounding humans to acquire academy education.

There are abounding humans absent to get academy apprenticeship through online Colleges and Universities so they accretion ability and skills, or enhance their ability and abilities but cannot do because of either the bulk or the ambiguity of the acceptability of the certificate. Government action in the anatomy of civic framework for online universities and colleges, subsidizing accreditation bulk and accouterment scholarships and apprentice loans would accessible the aperture for those who wish to abstraction from home. Government action can accord the affirmation that online acquirements is as acceptable as acceptable academy or university learning, and that their affidavit would be accustomed jobs that crave accompaniment licensing. It would affluence the burden on accessories in acceptable Colleges and Universities, aftermath the abstruse citizenry bare for civic development and catechumen the accepted cone-shaped appearance into a ‘near’ cylinder.

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Charting the Waters at Cordell Bank

Until 1978, no diver had explored the Cordell Bank. This amazing abode is now a Civic Abyssal Sanctuary. There’s an absorbing history abaft how this allotment of the ocean off the coffer of California, northwest of San Francisco became a sanctuary.

The coffer was apparent by George Davidson while administering surveys alternating California’s arctic coffer in 1853. Sixteen years later, in 1869, a added all-encompassing analysis was conducted by Edward Cordell, afterwards whom the coffer was named. What follows is some of the adventures aggregate by the aboriginal defined to appearance the bank.

At 150 feet, air bubbles accelerate out of my regulator aural like alluvium getting caked from a metal bucket. We are 20 afar from the abutting coffer on a ridgetop of a ample Pacific seamount called the Cordell Coffer and the arena beneath is abundantly bright. Anemone, hydrocoral, sponges, and algae awning aggregate in sight, in abounding places growing on top of anniversary other.

While accession some of these organisms, we are al of a sudden ablaze with a beatific giddiness. We try to smile, but aloof aperture and the regulator accomplish the accomplishment that abundant sillier. Struggling to ascendancy the narcosis, we accrue accession and exploring. All too soon, however, my associate after-effects a accede in foreground of my mask. Now, where’s the ascendance line? A aflame strobe catches my eye and I bathe against it. The line’s there, so we chase our bubbles – but not to the surface. At 10 feet, we both grab the regulators of abounding scuba tanks. The decompression delay seems abiding as we can hardly delay to acquaint the others about our dive to breadth no one has been before.

These adventures were aggregate with the columnist from Robert Schmeider, Ph.D., of Walnut Creek, California, who was bedeviled with the analysis of Cordell Bank. In 1977, while belief a blueprint of arctic California’s coastline, this diminutive physicist became absorbed by Cordell Bank, which is 20 afar (32 km) due west of Point Reyes and to the northwest of San Francisco. The blueprint showed there was at atomic one coffer abode with a abyss of 20 fathoms or 120 anxiety (37 meters). It could be dived application approved scuba tanks, so Schmeider affected it had been. But if he asked a few diving accompany if they had anytime been there, he apparent none had. So he talked to humans with the Coffer Guard, the Navy, the California Academy of Sciences, the University of California at Berkeley, the Department Angle and Game, the Geological Survey, the Civic Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and others. Afterwards a brace of months, Bob accomplished to his amazement, no one knew abundant about the coffer at all. The abstraction of exploring Cordell Coffer anon became a austere goal.

But Bob accepted abounding dangers. Deep-diving can consistently be dangerous, abnormally with aeroembolism air scuba diving due to the achievability of nitrogen befuddlement and decompression problems. Additionally, he knew the baptize was cold, and a adequately annealed accepted of one or two knots ran in the area. Two knots is about absurd to do any plan in. To accomplish affairs even worse he accepted to appointment lots of sharks, including abundant whites aback Cordell Coffer lies about amid amid Tomales Bay and the Farallon Islands, both places breadth abundant whites are accepted to congregate.

The fisherman in Bodega Bay knew the Coffer able-bodied as an accomplished fishing area, so Bob lined up a baiter and skipper from there. Afterwards all-encompassing discussions with several of his approved diving partners, he arise his plan to defined in the Sierra Club’s Loma Prieta affiliate from the San Francisco Bay breadth in October of 1977. He knew exploring the coffer would crave a ample abutment group. At an authoritative affair captivated in the U.S. Geological Analysis accommodation in Menlo Park, the accumulation adopted a divemaster and all but one of the 40 humans accessory pitched in $40 a section to bang off Cordell Coffer Expeditions.

After a few convenance dives at Monterey and at the Farallon Islands, Bob acquainted his accumulation was accessible to go to Cordell Bank. Unfortunately, he ran into abundant difficulties. A lot of importantly, a amount of defined had alone out of the group, so Bob had agitation accretion abundant defined for a trip. Finally, on October 20, 1978, with just 5 divers, Bob fabricated it to Cordell Bank.

As Bob recalls, “What we saw on that day actually afraid us. We were absolutely extemporaneous for the ablaze level. Not alone was it not dark, it was abundantly light. Afterwards I fabricated the aboriginal dive with a buddy, I told the added drivers not to yield their lights, as they artlessly would not allegation them. It was so ablaze you could about read. And we had been to a abyss of abutting to 150 feet.”

“There were astronomic aggregates of 12-inch (30 cm) angle pond about aloft the pinnacle. To us, it seemed an absurd snowstorm of fish. If we assuredly bankrupt through the angle on our way down, our absolute acreage of eyes was just abounding with this amazing sight. We could see colors – reds and oranges and yellows – and the rocks were covered, just inundated, with organisms. Sponges, abnormally Corynactics (Strawberry anemone), blush hydrocoral, hydroids, and a lot of large-bladed algae. It looked as if anyone had landscaped it. We were just overwhelmed.”

On the aboriginal dive, they calm about 50 species, including at atomic one new brand of algae and one new species. By alive carefully with a amount of able biologists at the University of California at Berkeley, the California Academy of Sciences, the Los Angeles County Museum, the Geological Survey, the Smithsonian, and added institutions, they sorted and articular their new collections until the account included added than 400 species.

After that aboriginal dive, fabricated accessible by the Sierra Club defined and by grants from such organizations as the San Francisco Foundation and the Civic Geographic Society, the Cordell Coffer Expeditions acquired into a member-supported, systematic, data-gathering alignment that bought its own analysis vessel, the Cordell Explorer, which was retired in 2014. They bought a LORAN-C receiver and agitated out abyss surveys aback and alternating beyond assertive areas, barometer base and recording positions. From that data, they were able to accomplish their own set of charts. Those archive became a above advice in accustomed out added acknowledged dives, as they could added anxiously accretion the pinnacles and ridges they capital to dive. In the summer of 1985, Bob and a aide were able to access advanced abyssal analysis abstracts on the Coffer as a aftereffect of a activity conducted by the Civic Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Analysis (USGS). That analysis covered the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coffer that the U.S. claims ascendancy over. Cordell Coffer may able-bodied be the best-surveyed affection off the coffer of Arctic America.

Aside from accession specimens and surveying, the campaign aswell acclimated 35-millimeter photography, added Super 8-millimeter, 16-millimeter, and cine cinematography. Some of their photographs accept been advantageous in anecdotic breed that didn’t appearance up in their collections and in assuming concrete appearance the defined may not accept noticed during their dives.

They accept begin this seamount is about egg-shaped and, at the 50-fathom depth, it is 9-1/2 afar continued by 4-½ afar advanced (15.3 x 7.25 km). It lies appropriate on the bend of the continental shelf and is the northernmost such coffer abode all the way to Canada. The coffer is a audible plateau with its collapsed top ascent to the 30- to 35-fathom depth. Atop this plateau, at atomic four cliffy backbone systems, two in the arctic and two in the south, and several pinnacles ability to diveable depths. In fact, the shallowest point the campaign has begin is about 19 fathoms (114 anxiety or 35 meters) and is allotment of a backbone arrangement in the northeast. Geologically, it is advised a section of the age-old Sierra Nevada that was sheared off by the Pacific Plate, appropriately answer its granite composition.

Growing on this 19-fathom aiguille is a dense, blanched cap of barnacles and red algae. Beneath this, from 20 to 25 fathoms (36.6 to 45.7 meters), the sessile association grades to about foot-thick bags of sponges, anemones, including the accepted Strawberry Anemone Corynactis californica, California Hydrocoral Allopora californica, hydroids, and tunicates. Space is the attached factor. The bacilli are absolute blithely black with reds, yellow, white, and pinks. At 30 fathoms (55 meters), the association thins to a few large, broadly spaced creatures, mainly sponges, urchins, and anemone. By 35 fathoms (64 meters), bald bedrock dominates the scene. About 200 anxiety in assorted places, ablaze white sediments of about a hundred percent carapace bits accumulate.

The Cordell Coffer association is absolute advantageous assuming little affirmation of ache or afterlife because the California Accepted brings clean, clear, algid (50 to 55 degrees F. or 10 to 13 degrees C.) water, with a top comestible content, upwelling to the almost coffer bank. If the confusing El Niño accepted occurs off California’s coast, the baptize temperatures at the coffer acceleration to over 60 degrees F. or 15.6 degrees C. The sun’s application access this baptize so acutely defined can yield photographs application accessible ablaze at 150 anxiety (46 meters). Visibility is sometimes as acceptable as 100 anxiety (30.5 meters). Because of the water’s accuracy and comestible load, photosynthesizing bacilli abutment a all-inclusive and circuitous aliment alternation up to ample fish, birds, and mammals.

Cordell Coffer has continued been accepted as a superb fishing area. Groups of rockfish besiege about the pinnacles, sometimes so thickly, defined address whiteout conditions. Besides rockfish, action fishermen consistently bolt lingcod, yellowtail, salmon, albacore, and shark. Oddly enough, the defined accept yet to see abundant white sharks, in animosity of the actuality that the abundant white’s admired prey, seals and sea lions, are at the bank. They have, however, apparent dejected and mako sharks.

Like rockfish, seabirds generally besiege about the pinnacles, and it was just such gatherings that enabled the campaign to initially home in on coffer credibility to dive. On analysis and diving trips aback 1978, advance assemblage from the California Abyssal Mammal Center and San Francisco Accompaniment University accept recorded abounding sightings of seabirds and mammals at or abreast Cordell Bank. They’ve apparent 33 breed of seabirds including black-footed albatross, arctic fulmar, cream scoter, south arctic skua, accepted murre, pigeon guillemot, bristling puffin, and amber pelican. The ahead endangered amber crammer was decidedly noteworthy because it was sighted on about two-thirds of the trips.

The assemblage aswell recorded fourteen kinds of abyssal mammals. Of appropriate absorption were two endangered cetaceans, the bulge and dejected whales. Both breed augment at the bank. The team’s a lot of agitative appointment with dejection occurred on October 10, 1982, if a brace approached from off the anchorage bow, alike 30 yards away, visibly swam beneath the ship, and alike afresh several hundred yards astern. Marc Webber and Steven Cooper, advertisement for the group, acquainted the amount of dejected bang sightings “represents a abundant amount of annal for this breed over the continental shelf in the Cordell Coffer area, and alternating with apparent ascertainment of agriculture advance this breadth is an important autumn abode for this species.” Aswell of accurate absorption were sightings of arctic albatross seals whose abyssal habits accept alone afresh become bigger understood. Added empiric mammal breed were Minke whale, Dall’s porpoise, anchorage porpoise, orca, Pacific white-sided dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, Arctic appropriate bang dolphin, California sea lion, Steller sea lion, arctic fur seal, and anchorage seal. These accept all been autumnal observations. The campaign has belted their trips to the autumn because the acclimate is a lot of anticipated at that time and because the California and Davidson currents added or beneath abolish anniversary added out, which makes diving added practical.

The greatest mysteries Bob and his defined accept encountered are a amount of large, annular holes that lie appropriate on the sharpest, accomplished locations of the region. Some holes arise to be man-made, but others attending natural. Hearsay has it the holes were fabricated by the U.S. Navy during the 1960′s in a activity accompanying to abysmal detection. Bob’s campaign was already followed for about an hour by an anonymous submarine. In animosity of his aegis clearance, Bob has been absolutely bootless in acquirements annihilation from the Navy about any of this.

Cordell Coffer is now a civic abyssal sanctuary. The Altar Programs Division (SPD) of NOAA, which is in allegation of the sanctuaries affairs captivated its aboriginal advisory audition on the coffer in San Francisco on April 25, 1984, and appear a abstract Ecology Appulse Account and added documents.

Bob is optimistic about Cordell Bank’s future. He believes, “It’s bounden aloft those of us who ambition to bottle assertive areas of our ambiance like museums, to set up the legislation to assure those areas. We don’t accord any anticipation whatsoever to commercially developing Yosemite because it’s become allotment of our civic environment, our cultural heritage. And our abyssal sanctuaries will become the aforementioned way. I achievement and accept that 50 or 100 years from now, areas like Cordell Bank, which had continued aback been appointed abyssal sanctuaries, will be allotment of our civic ancestry and will be advised inviolate.”

Creating a Abyssal Sanctuary

The federal abyssal sanctuaries affairs was accustomed by Title III of the Abyssal Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972. This law provides that areas in the ocean as far out as the bend of the continental shelf and in the Abundant Lakes may be protected.

During its aboriginal 5 years, the affairs crawled boring along, because no funds were appropriated. By 1977, alone two abyssal sanctuaries had been designated. The aboriginal was a six aboveboard mile website off Cape Hatteras, Arctic Carolina, to assure the bones of the U.S.S. Monitor, and the added was Key Largo Coral Reef Abyssal Altar adjoining to John Pennekamp Coral Reef Accompaniment Park in the Florida Keys, which covers 100 aboveboard miles. In that year, 1977, President Carter, in an ecology bulletin to Congress, bidding abutment for the affairs and added funding. In adverse to the law’s aboriginal intent, Carter was aggravating to assure areas threatened, in this case, by adopted oil development. As it angry out, one of Carter’s endure official acts was the appellation of three new sanctuaries: Looe Key in Florida, Gray’s Reef in Georgia, and the Gulf of the Farallones off California. (Cordell Coffer neighbors this sanctuary.) Already again, the affairs was slowed by belted allotment beneath the Reagan Administration.

The slowness of the abyssal sanctuaries affairs was abnormally alarming because all the acreage is beneath accompaniment or federal ascendancy already and doesn’t crave accretion funds. Money was bare alone for evaluating abeyant sites, managing a website afterwards it becomes a sanctuary, and administration the careful laws.

The abyssal sanctuaries affairs works in the afterward way. Any alignment or affiliate of the accessible may forward nominations to the Altar Programs Division (SPD) in the Commerce Department’s Civic Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for consideration. The abstraction of nominating a abode allegation not be intimidating. As Bob Schmeider begin out, “the choice itself doesn’t allegation to be absolute specific at all. Of course, if the (SPD) already knows about a site, which they had already accepted about Cordell Coffer from advice I had accustomed them able-bodied afore the nomination, (then) the absolute nominating footfall was artlessly a letter from me to them adage I would like to appoint Cordell Bank. If a website is absolutely alien and you’re advancing a nomination, again you allegation to awning some data and some information, so that they will accept some ability of it. That’s all.”

Formerly, a choice was automatically placed on a Account of Recommended Areas, but this has been replaced by a Website Evaluation Account (SEL) that includes nominated sites affair assertive basic criteria. Afterwards analysis by the SPD staff, the SPD can advance the breadth to alive candidacy. At that point, they’ll aftermath abstract documents, including a administration plan, ecology appulse account (EIS), and a appellation document. These will be broadcast a part of absorbed individuals, organizations, and authoritative agencies. They’ll aswell agenda accessible hearings in the communities abutting the applicant website to get added input. From that, they’ll aftermath final abstracts and broadcast those and authority added hearings. Congress has the befalling to analysis a site’s antagonism and authority their own hearings. Cordell Coffer was the aboriginal abyssal altar applicant to accept such scrutiny. If the website is aural accompaniment jurisdiction, again that state’s governor may veto the designation, but this will not necessarily abolish a site’s antagonism altogether. (Cordell Coffer wasn’t in accompaniment waters.) Afterwards all of these steps, the Secretary of Commerce can assurance the appellation certificate and the website will become a civic abyssal sanctuary.

Cordell Coffer was accustomed as a abyssal altar in 1989 and broadcast in 2015 to awning 1286 aboveboard miles.

The official government website for Cordell Coffer is at: http://www.cordellbank.noaa.gov, while the Cordell Coffer Expeditions web website is at: http://www.cordell.org.

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Religious Discrimination: Not Always A Piece of Cake

Religious Bigotry or Gender Discrimination?

We’ve all apprehend about the chef or columnist who refuses casework to the gay alliance couple. In the affray of aboveboard captivated behavior of “right and wrong,” anyone will get hurt. One such case will be absitively in the 2017-18 appellation by the U.S. Supreme Court.

A Colorado chef banned to adapt a alliance block for a gay brace based on his religious aesthetics that homosexual alliance is sinful, and he should not be accountable to accurate approval of the alliance around by his alertness of an account [the cake, and absolutely likely, the bulletin accounting on the cake] adulatory the marriage. The Colorado cloister disqualified for the gay couple. The baker’s block is now served up on address to the Supreme Court.

Religious Bigotry May Depend on How You Slice It.

Society’s appearance on the appropriate of homosexuals to access aforementioned sex marriages has confused rapidly over the decade. This amount of cultural change is amazing. California, for example, went from a built-in alteration attached alliance to adverse sex bodies to getting accountable by its State Supreme Cloister to acquiesce such marriages. The U.S. Supreme Cloister afterwards disqualified that the due action article and 14th alteration of the federal Constitution belted the States from abstinent alliance licenses to aforementioned sex couples. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015).

Is a alliance block an announcement of acceptance that, if compelled, would be a abuse of the baker’s religious alternative beneath the First Amendment? Justice William Brennan in Sherbert v. Verner (1963) stated: “The aperture of the Chargeless Exercise Article stands deeply bankrupt adjoin any authoritative adjustment of religious beliefs. Government may neither bulldoze affirmation of a abhorrent belief, nor amerce or discriminate adjoin individuals or groups because they authority religious angle abhorrent to the authorities, nor apply the demanding ability to arrest the broadcasting of a accurate religious views.”

The Chef [Jack Phillips, the buyer of Masterpiece Cakeshop in Lakewood, Colorado] states that he angle the use of his cakes as messages, and that some letters breach his religious beliefs. He has written: “And that aphorism applies to far added than cakes adulatory same-sex marriages. I aswell will not use my talents to bless Halloween, anti-American or anti-family themes, atheism, racism, or indecency.” The Denver Post .

The photography and alliance block cases are acclaimed from arrant homophobic bent by the “expressive” bulletin the autograph and/or images project. The business humans who debris to actualize these expressions do so because the announcement is adverse to their religious belief. Likewise, their religious acceptance is adverse to those who are banned the appurtenances or casework the businesses provide.

Religious Bigotry or Religious Freedom?: Tough Questions for the Court.

Rights bang in a autonomous society. The appropriate of chargeless accent collides adjoin the accessible assurance if the accent is assertive to could cause commotion and afterlife to innocent people. The appropriate to “bear arms” is bound by laws acute the allotment of weapons afterwards a accomplishments check. The accepted “wedding cake” altercation will crave the cloister to antithesis two alienated civic values: the abandon to marry, and the abandon of religion.

The Supreme Cloister has afresh put itself in the role of umpiring a civic action that raises abundant questions:

  • Is the icing on the block a anatomy of governmentally accountable announcement adverse to the baker’s religious freedom?
  • Is the icing on the block the baker’s announcement of approval of gay marriage, or artlessly a artefact blueprint he delivers for announcement by the purchaser?
  • Is the icing on the block abhorrent to the chef to the amount that it is an advance aloft his religious convictions?
  • Is the icing on the block readily accessible from added bakers not accepting the aforementioned religious aesthetics as Phillips?
  • Which religious behavior arete First Alteration protections and which will be accounted unconstitutional?
  • Which religious practices does a chargeless autonomous association adjudge to be forms of actionable discrimination?

In acclamation these questions, the U.S. Supreme Cloister will accept to adjudge whether the icing on the block is a anatomy of announcement that disproportionately restricts Phillips’s abandon of religion. Is Phillips actual that he is somehow affected to accept homosexual alliance by advancing a block for the wedding? Is the act of applying a bulletin on a block his acceptance of the bulletin as his own? Is his baking accord in a commemoration he finds abhorrent to his religious conviction? Repugnancy and abhorrence assume to be in abounding accumulation by both parties to the case. If the Cloister makes the call, there will booing from one ancillary or the added aural the amphitheater of ideas.

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